Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal Logo BIA

Home page

Towards controlled lipid content in cereal starches

image reconstituée en fausses couleurs de la LysoPC piégée dans l’amidon de l’albumen de maïs
Lipids complexed with cereal starches have a strong impact on their functional and nutritional properties.

Our project aimed to select European corn cultivars with the right kernel vitreousness for producing cornmeals geared to breakfast-cereal manufacture (cornflakes). Our research has shown that starch-lipid complexes, along with storage proteins, make excellent markers of corn endosperm (the seed's storage tissue) vitreousness. Here we studied the source of these lipids, and particularly lysophosphatidylcholine, during corn kernel endosperm development. By coupling MALDI imaging with the spatio-temporal expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in the developing seed, we were able to forge a scenario connecting lipid trafficking in the endosperm, storage protein biosynthesis, and lipid metabolism in the starch. These findings set the stage for potential new strategies on the farming practice front and on the varietal selection front (nitrogen nutrition, resistance to environmental stressors), for controlling the lipid content of cereal-crop starches.


Gayral M, Fanuel M, Rogniaux H, Dalgalarrondo M, Elmorjani K, Bakan B, Marion D. (2018) The spatiotemporal deposition of lysophosphatidylcholine within starch granules of maize endosperm and its relationships to the expression of genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum-amyloplast lipid trafficking and galactolipid synthesis. Plant and Cell Physiology, doi:10.1093/pcp/pcy198

Gayral M, Elmorjani K, Dalgalarrondo M, Balzergue SM, Pateyron S, Morel MH, Brunet S, Linossier L, Delluc C, Bakan B, Marion D. (2017) Responses to hypoxia and endoplasmic reticulum stress discriminate the development of vitreous and floury endosperms of conventional maize (Zea mays) inbred lines. Frontiers in Plant Science, doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00557

See also

Integrality of the result >>>