Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal Oniris

Home page

Saade Georges

Team ImmunoCare

Saade Georges
© GS

PhD Student

 Oniris site de la Chantrerie, CS40706, 44307 Nantes, France
 team ImmunoCare, building G5 2nd floor

Email: georges (point) saade (at) oniris-nantes (point) fr
Tel: 02 40 68 76 79

Veterinary doctor, Georges SAADE joined BioEPAR on January 22, 2018 as a PhD student within the ImmunoCare group.

His thesis subject is about co-infections of pig cells and respiratory tissues by influenza A and the porcine respiratory and dysgenic syndrome virus. He will be supervised by François Meurens and Nicolas Bertho.

Summary of the thesis: 

In the swine species, the understanding of respiratory infections involving the influenza virus type A (SwIAV) on farms where the PRRS virus (PRRSV) is circulating remains rather limited. As the molecular consequences of these co-infections on the porcine host are still poorly known, the study of these co-infections remains very important and necessary.

The aim of the project is to decipher at the cellular and respiratory tissue level the molecular consequences of viral co-infections by SwIAV and vSDRP. The innate immune response of target cells and lung tissue to viruses will be analysed at the molecular level in situations of simultaneous infection and in situations of delayed infection (superinfection). Fine analysis of virus-tissue interactions will allow us to better measure the consequences of co-infections. This could ultimately make it possible to limit the impact in terms of health in pig farms and to adapt the recommendations made to the players in the sector.

How do vSDRP, swIAV and ADV viruses interact together? How do they interfere? What is the impact of these interactions on the immune response of the pig host (on IFN responses more specifically)? Do the viruses develop synergistic actions ? Or on the contrary, do they tend to interfere with each other?

The main working hypothesis is that viruses interact with each other depending on the timing, the sequence of infection events and the nature of the virus. Indeed, previous work has shown that a delay between vSDRP and swIAV infections has consequences on the clinical damage observed (Van Reeth, Nauwynck, and Pensaert 2001) without however specifying the nature of the interactions between viruses and remaining rather evasive on the delay. It is envisaged here to vary the delay parameter in cell culture or explant culture systems where it is easier to control all the parameters than in vivo. It is also hypothesized that other parameters such as the nature of the viruses involved, the viral strains and the target cell type may also have an impact on virus interactions. Finally, we hypothesize that induced immunity phenomena (Netea, Quintin, and van der Meer 2011; Kleinnijenhuis et al. 2014; Holmes and Bryceson 2016; Cerwenka and Lanier 2016; Yao et al. 2018) could be induced after virus infections. Several of these hypotheses will be tested on epithelial cells (whether or not expressing CD163, the vSDRP receptor), macrophages and lung tissue from healthy or pre-infected animals.

The work consists mainly in specifying the impact of the superinfection delay on the interactions that may occur between viruses during co-infection or superinfection of cells or lung tissue. Different superinfection delays are used between viruses whose order of infection is subsequently reversed. Superinfection delays will range from 1h to 48h in order to approach conditions that allow the development of innate "trained" immunity phenomena on epithelial cells, macrophages and lung tissue in the context of viral infections (Netea, Quintin, and van der Meer 2011; Kleinnijenhuis et al. 2014; Suliman et al. 2016; Holmes and Bryceson 2016; Cerwenka and Lanier 2016). Interactions between viruses are measured at the level of the viruses and more specifically their replication (RT-qPCR and viral assays) as well as at the host level (lung cells and lung tissue). With regard to the latter, the expression of different transcripts relating to early cellular response and antiviral control is measured. In parallel, the production of corresponding proteins can also be evaluated. This part of the project will make it possible to determine whether situations allow the two viruses to interact or even harm each other in terms of the course of their viral cycle or, on the contrary, to favour each other to the detriment of the host and in favour of other viral or non-viral pathogens. As far as viruses are concerned, we are also looking at another parameter likely to influence the interactions between viruses: the multiplicity of infection (MOI).


  • Berri M., Hogan D., Saade G., Roche S., Velge P., Virlogeux-Payant I., Meurens F. 2020. IPEC-1 variable immune response to different serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 220:109989 [IF18=1.846] DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2019.109989. 
  • Mansour C., El Hachem N., Jamous P., Saade G., Boselli E., Allaouchiche B., Bonnet J.-M., Junot S., Chaaya R. 2020. Performance of the Parasympathetic Tone Activity (PTA) index to assess the intraoperative nociception using different premedication drugs in anaesthetised dogs. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine, 8(1):49-55 DOI:  10.1080/23144599.2020.1783090.
  • Saade G., Deblanc C., Bougon J., Marois-Crehan C., Fablet C., Auray G., Belloc C., Leblanc-Maridor M., Gagnon C.A., Zhu J., Gottschalk M., Summerfield A., Simon G., Bertho N., Meurens F. 2020. Coinfections and their molecular consequences in the porcine respiratory tract. Veterinary Research, In press [IF18=3.117] DOI: 10.1186/s13567-020-00807-8.
  • Saade, G., Ménard, D., Hervet, C., Renson, P., Hue, E., Zhu, J., Dubreil, L., Paillot, R., Pronost, S., Bourry, O., Simon, G., Dupont, J., Bertho, N., and Meurens, F. 2020. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Interferes with Swine Influenza A Virus Infection of Epithelial Cells. Vaccines, 8(3) :508 [IF19=4.086] DOI: 10.3390/vaccines8030508.
  • Larcher T., Fablet C., Renson P., Ménard D., Hervet C., Saade G., Belloc C., Bourry O., Meurens F. 2019. Assessment of pulmonary responses in pigs challenged with PRRSV Lena strain shows better protection after immunization with field than vaccine strains. Veterinary Microbiology, 230:249-259 [IF19=3.030] DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.01.022.