Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal Oniris

Home page

Qingli Niu

Comparison of sequence, organisation and expression of the rhoptry-associated-protein-1 genes in Babesia isolates responsible for ovine Babesiosis in China

Abstract :

Several intra-erythrocytic parasites of the genus Babesia are responsible of ovine babesiosis in China. They belong to two phylogenetic groups. One includes only Babesia sp. Xinjiang ; the other, close to B. motasi, gathers several different parasites whose status as genus or species remains to be clarified. To develop a vaccination strategy aiming at blocking the parasite multiplication within its host, the characterization of the multigene family rap-1 (rhoptry-associated-protein-1) has been undertaken, as these proteins are known to be involved in the process of the erythrocyte invasion by the parasite.
In the B. motasi-like group, the rap-1 locus is complex in the 4 parasites studied (Babesia sp. Tianzhu, Babesia sp. BQ1 Lintan and BQ1 Ningxian, Babesia sp. Hebei) with 3 types of genes : rap-1a (6 polymorphic copies), rap-1b (5 identical copies intercalated with rap-1a genes) and rap-1c (1 copy at the 3' end of the locus). The sequences are similar for 3 of these parasites (99.9% over the whole locus), but Babesia sp. Hebei rap-1 sequences are more divergent (78%). The 3 types of genes are transcribed in vitro by Babesia sp. BQ1 Lintan. In vitro, only some copies of rap-1a are translated. In vivo, all genes seem to be translated with different kinetics.
Seven rap-1a genes have been characterized in Babesia sp. Xinjiang, belonging to two types, α and β, according to their 3' end sequences. These tandemly arranged genes are identical over 936 nt in 5', and differ in 3' by a variable number of more or less conserved 36 nt repeats. At least 5 of these genes are transcribed in in vitro culture.
These results are discussed in terms of taxonomy, evolution and vaccination.

Key words :

Babesia, ovine babesiosis, rhoptry-associatedprotein, protein expression, red blood cell invasion, taxonomy, vaccine development, protein repeats

Download documents