Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal Institut Agro Rennes-Angers Angers University   IRHS


Compatibility and complementarity of resistance to Alternaria dauci with mechanisms of plant defence stimulation by biocontrol (Optima European project).

As we previously showed that the metabolites involved in carrot resistance are mainly constitutively accumulated, our next questioning was to look at the complementarity between constitutive and induced mechanisms of resistance.

For this purpose, we decided to evaluate the possible interactions between bio-PPPs and varieties. In the context of the OPTIMA project, we identified different bio-PPPs1 and more specifically some PDI2 able to protect the carrot against Alternaria dauci with high efficiency but depending on the carrot genotype. Higher impact was obtained with the susceptible genotypes in terms of protection in two independent greenhouse trials. We also developed a new tool in collaboration with Respom IRHS team, i.e. a new qPDF array adapted to Carrot species (Brisset et al., 20113) dedicated to evaluate the ability of various products to stimulate plant defences. With this tool, we investigated the relative expression of 28 defence-related genes in plants treated with Bio-PPPs versus untreated plants. Some of the most promising bio-PPPs evaluated against Alternaria dauci showed a clear relationship between the expression pattern of some defence-related genes and the level of protection.

1 Bio-PPP : biocontrol products, 2 PDI : plant defense inducer ; 3 Brisset, M.N., Dugé de Bernonville, T, Gaucher M., Moussa S.A., Briard M., Le Clerc V. Koutouan C.E., 2019. DI-RV-19-0075 : extension carotte du brevet Patent n° WO/2011/161388. Brisset, M.N. et Dugé de Bernonville, T., 2011. Device for determining or studying the state of stimulation of the natural defenses of plants or portions of plants