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Last update: May 2021

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Hazard analysis and Microbial Risk Assessment

Hazard analysis and Microbial Risk Assessment

Microbiological food safety has always been a general framework of UMR Secalim's activities which aim in particular to "control" hazards and reduce risk by devising strategies, systems and carrying out work at the heart of the now known triptych. of control: regulations / organizational elements / operational factors.
Two approaches are jointly considered at Secalim for the control and reduction of microbiological risks, depending on whether the hazard or the risk is placed at the center of its concerns. In the first approach, the hazard is objectified, deciphered, dissected in a hazard analysis and the risk is a measure of this hazard. In the second approach called quantitative microbiological risk assessment, risk is quantified as a probability and occupies the main place that must be assessed, managed, or even “communicated”. These two thematics are included in thematic 2: assess the safety risk.

  • Hazard analysis

Several Secalim projects are based on hazard analysis, in particular for new agro-food applications for which it is necessary to acquire knowledge. This is particularly the case for production environments where microbiological monitoring carried out by manufacturers is based on practices and methods that are still poorly known. Clarifying these practices is one of the objectives of the research and development program between Anses and Secalim within the framework of the SEPIA project.
projects that examine the bacteriostatic properties of wood with a view to developing its use as a packaging material in contact with food within the framework of the consortium EMABOIS.

The Insect4food project aims to carry out an analysis of the microbiological hazards present in insect powder with a view to valorizing insects in human food.

  • Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment

Secalim has expertise in Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (AQRM). This structured approach is used to estimate the risk associated with consuming a food and to assess risk mitigation measures. QMRA consists of four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. This methodological research activity fully contributes to the influence of the unit at national and international level. The Erasmus + QSafe project (2015-2017) allowed Secalim to integrate and feed a European network of researchers with a major outlet as an  ITN PROTECT (Predictive mOdelling Tools to evaluate the Effects of Climate change on food safeTy) ongoing project.

Exposure assessment requires predictive microbiology approaches used to predict the growth, survival, or adaptation of microorganisms during food processing processes. Risk assessment (or exposure) models are also being developed in order to assess the risk to the population and the relative impact of processes / formulation / storage / consumer practices on this risk. The work is carried out in partnership with companies or their representatives (professional federations, technical centers).

Books and book Chapters :

  • On wood:
    • Federighi, M. and P. Poupault 2017. Partie 1: Bois et contact alimentaire. Chapitre 2 : Cadre  réglementaire  des  matériaux  au  contact  des  aliments  –  Cas particulier  du  bois  Bois et industries agroalimentaires. F. Aviat and N. Oulahal, éds.,  Paris, Lavoisier Tec & Doc: pp. 13-20, ISBN : 978-2-7430-2489-5.
    • Brunet, C., F. Aviat, M. Federighi, L. Bérard and N. Oulaha 2017. Partie 1: Bois et contact alimentaire. Chapitre 1 : Contexte. Bois et industries agroalimentaires. F. Aviat and N. Oulahal, éds.,  Paris, Lavoisier Tec & Doc: pp. 3-11, ISBN : 978-2-7430-2489-5.
  • on food safety and risk assessment:
    • Membré, J.-M., éd. 2022. Microbiological Risk Assessment associated with the food processing and distribution chain. Sciences. Agronomy and Food Science - Food Safety, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd ISTE Ltd.
    • Garcia, M. A. and N. Haddad 2022. Pathogenic mechanisms of bacterial foodborne pathogens. Microbiological Risk Assessment associated with the food processing and distribution chain, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd ISTE Ltd: pp. 97-140, 9781119986980.Haddad, N. 2022. Detection and enumeration of foodborne pathogens and bacterial toxins in food. Microbiological Risk Assessment associated with the food processing and distribution chain, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd ISTE Ltd: pp. 27-68, 9781119986980.Membré, J.-M. and N. Haddad 2022. Biological hazard identification. Microbiological Risk Assessment associated with the food processing and distribution chain, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd ISTE Ltd: pp. 1-25, 9781119986980.
    • Membré, J.-M. and G. Boué 2017. Quantitative microbial risk assessment during food processing. Textbook on quantitiative tools for sustainable food and energy in the food chain. P. Valdramidis, E. Cummins and J. F. M. Van Impe, éds.,  Ghent, Belgium, EUROSIS-ETI Publications: pp. 183-201, 978-90-77381-19
    • Membré, J.-M. and V. Valdramidis, éds. 2016. Modeling in Food Microbiology: from predictive microbiology to exposure assessment, ISTE Press and Elsevier. ISBN : 9781785481550
    • Federighi, M. and M. Friant-Perrot 2009. Les éléments et facteurs de la maîtrise de la sécurité des aliments. Sécurité des patients, sécurité des consommateurs convergences et divergences A. Laude and D. Tabuteau, éds.,  Paris, Presses Universitaires de France: pp. 147-5, ISBN : 978-2-13-057416-3
    • Membré, J. M. and S. Dagnas 2016. Modelling microbial responses: application to food spoilage. Modeling in Food Microbiology: from predictive microbiology to exposure assessment. J. M. Membré and P. Valdramidis, éds., ISTE Press and Elsevier Chapter 4: pp., 9781785481550.
    • Membré, J.-M. 2016. Microbiological risk assessment in food industry. Food Hygiene and Toxicology in Ready-to-Eat Foods. P. Kotzekidou, éd.,  UK, Elsevier, Inc.: pp. 337-349,
    • Membré, J.-M. 2014. Hazard Appraisal (HACCP). Establishment of performance criteria (MS 155). Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology. C. Batt and M.-L. Tortorello, éds., Elsevier 2nd Edition. pp., ISBN 9780123847300.
    • Membré, J. M. 2012. Setting of Thermal Processes in a Context of Food Safety Objectives (FSOs) and Related Concepts. Progress on quantitative approaches of thermal food processing. V. P. Valdramidis and J. F. M. Van Impe, éds.,  New York, USA, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Chapter 12: pp. 297-326, ISBN: 978-1-62100-899-6.
    • Federighi, M. and M. Friant-Perrot 2009. Les éléments et facteurs de la maîtrise de la sécurité des aliments. Sécurité des patients, sécurité des consommateurs convergences et divergences A. Laude and D. Tabuteau, éds.,  Paris, Presses Universitaires de France: pp. 147-5, ISBN : 978-2-13-057416-3

PhD theses supervised on this topic:

A phD thesis was supervised on the evaluation of wood material in contact with food and was defended in 2015. The phD theses supervised at Secalim requiring the implementation of QMRA were defended in 2014 on the sterilization process for UHT milk, in 2014 on the microbiological shelf-life of poultry sausages with the contribution of High Pressure, in 2015 on the spoilage of bakery products, in 2020 on the exposure of Campylobacter jejuni during the slaughter process (project BIOMICS). The phD theses on the risk - benefit assessment also required QMRA approaches: thesis on the infant milk feeding, defended in 2017 and thesis on the risks - benefits associated with red meat defended in 2020. Another phD thesis also defended 2020 dealing with bacterial spoilage in poultry sausages also required modeling and biostatistics approaches (ANR REDLOSSES).

QMRA could be used in various projects and often resulted in industrial collaborations in different sectors (dairy products, plants, meat products, etc.) and collaborations with scientists from the University of Ghent, UCD of Dublin, the University of Wageningen, as evidenced by the list of publications to follow and the projects in progress opposite.

The outreach of Secalim in hazard analysis and risk assessment is illustrated by the expertise and public policy support missions of some of its members, at the level of the CES BioRisk of ANSES, the DGAL and the DGCCRF. Support work for the development of official controls at the poultry slaughterhouse, the publication of a Notice of Anses related to powder milk infant formula, the writing of a DGCCRF sheet to specify the verification methods of the suitability of wood material to food contact, and the establishment of Afnor and Iso standards on challenge-testing and predictive modeling, constitute some notable achievements.

Contact persons in Secalim:

Other persons involved:

Wood and food contact

Wood and food contact : innovative method in microbiology

Comparison of innovative extraction methods of micro-organisms from wood material for the development of a specific standard to assess the food...
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Chrysanthi Champidou

phD thesis of Chrysanthi Champidou (2021- 2024)

Development of models of bacterial inactivation
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Nicolas Helsens

PhD thesis of Nicolas Helsens (2017-2020)

Characterization of bacterial communities and antibiotic resistance genes in farmed fish - Application to the control of microbial and environmental...
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Ngoc-Du Luong

PhD thesis of Ngoc-Du Luong (2017-2020)

Acquisition de données biologiques et développement de modèles statistiques en vue de quantifier le risque d’altération de la viande (Sandrine...
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Juliana de Oliveira Mota

PhD thesis of Juliana de Oliveira Mota (2016-2019)

Health Risk-Benefit assessment associated with preperation and consumption of beef meat. Methodological approach (J.M. Membré, F. Pierre (ToxAlim),...
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Benjamin Duqué

PhD thesis of Benjamin Duqué (2016-2019)

Innovative methodology combining transcriptomics, statistics, and modelling to evaluate the capacity of Campylobacter jejuni to survive stress (S....
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Géraldine Boué

PhD thesis of Géraldine Boué

Development of an integrative methodology of risk-benefit assessment in food considering its chemical, microbiological and nutritional components...
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Rached Ismail

PhD thesis of Rached Ismail (2012-2015)

Microbiological characterisation of the model micro-organism-wood-food (M. Federighi, F. Aviat)
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PhD thesis of Stéphane Dagnas (2012-2015)

Development of a methodology of mold spoilage quantification of food products. Application to bakery products.
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PhD thesis of Laure Pujol (2011-2014)

Methods development and statistical tools adaptation to build a model of sterility level quantification of food products from an aseptic-Ultra-High...
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