Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal Oniris

Home page

Antibiotic resistance, an investigation from breeding to food

Antibiotic resistance
Do Rainbow Trout Fillets Host Determinants of Antibiotic Resistance?

The growing acquisition of resistance to antibiotics by bacteria poses a new question, that of the place of food as a potential source of transmission of determinants of antibiotic resistance: antibiotic residues, resistance genes and resistant bacteria. These determinants are linked to the natural bacterial flora of the food, the composition of which can be impacted by its production environment.

In this study, the bacterial microbiota and its antibiotic resistance profile of a panel of 56 fillets were described using extraction methods adapted to this matrix, which has a low level of natural flora, and methods of amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, by high throughput qPCR by Smartchip Realtime PCR technology, and by the determination of antibiotic residues by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The fillets were obtained from trout reared on two farms located upstream and downstream of the same river, raised in the factory or under sterile laboratory conditions. The microbiota of the fillets (muscle and skin) is dominated by the bacterial genera Pseudomonas, Escherichia-Shigella, Chryseobacterium and Carnobacterium.
Variations within the microbiota were observed for the least abundant bacterial communities depending on the location of the farm or the filleting conditions. Of the 73 antibiotic residues investigated, only oxytetracycline residues were detected in 23% of the fillets, but all at a dose below the maximum limit authorized in the European Union. Of the 248 resistance genes sought, 17 were present in at least 20% of the trout population but at very low concentrations (resistance to tetracycline, beta-lactams, macrolides and vancomycin, etc.). At the scale of this study, the fish fillets studied had little or no carriers of elements that could participate in antibiotic resistance (residues, genes and bacteria).

Partners: this study was carried out by the INRAE-Oniris SECALIM and BIOEPAR units in the framework of the FOOD RESISTOME project, with the financial support of RFI Food For Tomorrow (Pays de la Loire region).

Associated publication: Helsens, N., S. Calvez, H. Prévost, A. Bouju-Albert, A. Maillet, A. Rossero, D. Hurtaud-Pessel, M. Zagorec and C. Magras 2020. Antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial communities of farmed rainbow trout fillets (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Frontiers in Microbiology 11(3070). https://doi.org10.3389/fmicb.2020.590902.