Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal Oniris

Home page


Control of bacterial spores by High Hydrostatic Pressure

High pressure (HP) food stabilization processes are now in the industrial deployment phase across Europe and are well accepted by consumers. But currently, only cold or room temperature processes are used industrially to decontaminate and stabilize raw or cooked products which are then systematically kept cold. HP processes currently implemented are extremely effective in destroying pathogenic vegetative flora and alteration. However, spores, forms of resistance of certain bacterial species, remain currently nonmaitrisables by treatments with high pressure despite a dense bibliography on the subject. The published works, often too theoretical, only describe protocols that are poorly adapted to industrial requirements. Or they have not been validated by the production of stable food products. Faced with this industrial need, the main objective of the project is to identify, to define protocols allowing the control of bacterial spores by HP treatments under technically and economically credible conditions.
To acquire the knowledge necessary to define the industrializable protocols, two technological approaches are identified to answer this technical challenge: cyclic hyperbaric treatments and hot temperature HP treatments (pasteurization or sterilization assisted by HP).

First, the resistance of microorganisms of several different genera representative of the natural microbiological variability of food, will be characterized and modeled . It will be used in particular strains from industrial environments with their specific physiological characteristics (they are very often more resistant to treatment than collection strains). The associated post-treatment growth recovery will be particularly followed in order to define efficient and potentially industrializable protocols. In parallel, the characterization of the mechanisms of inactivation of the spores should make it possible to develop a treatment strategy in order to optimize the final inactivation obtained. Using microscopy techniques and the study of original biomarkers (molecular rotor, genetic markers) as well as the analysis coupled to several markers, it will be particularly followed the reversible or irreversible modifications of the spore, its structure and different enzymes involved in germination then in growth. Finally, the purpose of this project is to propose viable protocols, an industrial validation is provided both in terms of the effectiveness of the control of bacterial spores and their technological compatibility (process and product).

Keywords: High pressure - process - food safety - microbial stability - pathogen - spoilage - spores - modeling