Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal Oniris

Home page

Effect of the process on the microbiota of processed salmon products

Effect of the process on the salmon microbiota
Quality of smoked salmon versus salmon gravlax

In a context of changing food processing practices towards safer foods less formulated in salt, sugar and additives, the research of the UMR INRAE-Oniris SECALIM aims to provide knowledge on the influence of processes on microbiology and food safety. Lightly preserved seafood, such as cold-smoked fish and fish gravlax, are traditionally consumed in Europe and are of considerable economic importance. This study aimed to monitor and compare the microbiological, biochemical and sensory characteristics of three processed products obtained from the same batch of salmon, throughout refrigerated storage: cold-smoked salmon stored under vacuum packaging or a modified atmosphere packaging and salmon dill gravlax. Microbiological analysis was performed using conventional cultural methods, coupled with analysis of bacterial communities by high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA. The evolution of the pH, as well as the production of metabolites likely to affect the sensory qualities of the products (trimethylamine, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), biogenic amines, volatile organic compounds (VOC) were measured. Sensory analysis characterized the sensory quality of products using different descriptors associated with the appearance, texture and odour of the product.

With a relatively similar initial microbiota dominated by the genera Photobacterium, Lactococcus and Lactobacillus, the three products exhibited between the fourteenth and the twenty-eighth day a significant change in their microbial composition, in connection with their processing and / or packaging conditions. By day 28, the ecosystem of cold-smoked vacuum salmon was predominantly comprised of the genera Photobacterium and, to a lesser extent, Lactococcus and Lactobacillus, while Lactobacillus was dominant  cold-smoked salmon under modified atmosphere packaging. Predominantly dominated by Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Serratia / Yersinia, salmon gravlax exhibited greater bacterial diversity than smoked salmon, presumably due to the presence of spices and herbs and the absence of phenolic compounds. In general, the quality of the products remained acceptable throughout storage with little sensory impairment of the products. However, gravlax was the most perishable product, ahead of cold-smoked salmon under vacuum and cold-smoked salmon under modified atmosphere packaging, the latter undergoing no noticeable spoilage after thirty-five days of storage. When observed, the spoilage was associated with an increase in TVBN, biogenic amines and VOCs associated with spoilage. This study made it possible to show that the process and the nature of the packaging significantly influence the microbial composition and the quality of the finished product.

 Publication associée :

Wiernasz, N., F. Gigout, M. Cardinal, J. Cornet, J. Rohloff, P. Courcoux, E. Vigneau, S. Skírnisdottír, D. Passerini, M.-F. Pilet and F. Leroi 2021. Effect of the manufacturing process on the microbiota, organoleptic properties and volatilome of three salmon-based products. Foods 10(11). 10.3390/foods10112517.

Financement et partenariat :

This study was performed by UMR INRAE-Oniris SECALIM in collaboration with the laboratory EM3B de l’IFREMER and USC INRAE StatSC d’Oniris in Nantes in the fraework of the European project ERA-Net SAFEFISH DISH (ANR-14-COFA-0001).