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24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

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PhD thesis of Sabrina Macé (2010-2013)

Molecular characterization and quantification of raw salmon and cooked shrimp spoilage microbiota


Raw salmon and cooked shrimp sold in supermarket are usually found under vacuum or CO2 modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). This type of packaging inhibit growth of some bacteria, therefore, CO2 tolerant bacteria dominate spoilage microbiota of these products. The aim of this study is to improve knowledge about bacteria involved in spoilage.
Spoilage microbial ecosystems of raw salmon and tropical cooked shrimp were described using classic microbiological and molecular methods like PCR-TTGE and pyrosequencing. Lactic acid bacteria, notably Lactococcus piscium, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Carnobacterium divergens, Lactobacillus sakei, and Gram negative bacteria like Photobacterium phosphoreum and Enterobacteriaceae (Serratia spp.) has been described as dominant bacterial groups on spoiled MAP salmon by using both type of methods. Shewanella baltica and C. maltaromaticum were mostly present in spoiled entire tropical cooked shrimp while, Carnobacterium spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Streptococcus parauberis dominated spoiled peeled tropical cooked shrimp analyzed with pyrosequencing.
In order to identify the bacteria responsible for these products spoilage, spoilage potential of several of these species was investigated using sterile matrix inoculation. Then, combining sensory, chemical, microbiological and molecular methods, spoilage of the inoculated samples was characterized. Volatile compounds analysis (GC-MS) of some samples was also realized. C. maltaromaticum and S. baltica are both implied in entire tropical cooked shrimp spoilage and P. phosphoreum was revealed to be responsible for MAP salmon spoilage.
As no specific medium is available for enumeration of P. phosphoreum species in seafood products, a real time PCR method combined with propidium monoazide treatement was , thus, developed and used to quantify viable cells of this bacteria in salmon samples.

 Valorisation :

  • Macé, S., J. Cornet, F. Chevalier, M. Cardinal, M. F. Pilet, D. X. and J. J. Joffraud 2012. Characterisation of the spoilage microbiota in raw salmon (Salmo salar) steaks stored under vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging combining conventional methods and PCR-TTGE. Food Microbiology 30(1): 8. Ranking du JCR: Q1. 
  • Mamlouk, K., S. Macé, M. Guilbaud, E. Jaffrès, M. Ferchichi, H. Prévost, M.-F. Pilet and X. Dousset 2012. Quantification of viable Brochothrix thermosphacta in cooked shrimp and salmon by real-time PCR. Food Microbiology 30(1): 173-179. Ranking du JCR: Q1.
  • Macé, S., J.-J. Joffraud, M. Cardinal, M. Malcheva, J. Cornet, V. Lalanne, F. Chevalier, T. Sérot, M.-F. Pilet and X. Dousset 2013. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from spoiled raw salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under modified atmosphere packaging. International Journal of Food Microbiology 160(3): 227-238. Ranking du JCR: Q1.
  • Macé, S., K. Mamlouk, S. Chipchakova, H. Prévost, J.-J. Joffraud, P. Dalgaard, M.-F. Pilet and X. Dousset 2013. Development of a Rapid Real-Time PCR Method as a Tool To Quantify Viable Photobacterium phosphoreum Bacteria in Salmon (Salmo salar) Steaks. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79(8): 2612-2619. 10.1128/aem.03677-12. Ranking du JCR: Q1.
  • Mace, S., M. Cardinal, E. Jaffres, J. Cornet, V. Lalanne, F. Chevalier, T. Serot, M.-F. Pilet, X. Dousset and J.-J. Joffraud 2014. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from spoiled cooked whole tropical shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) stored under modified atmosphere packaging. Food Microbiology 40: 9-17. 10.1016/ Ranking du JCR: Q1.
  • Chaillou, S., A. Chaulot-Talmon, H. Caekebeke, M. Cardinal, S. Christieans, C. Denis, M. Helene Desmonts, X. Dousset, C. Feurer, E. Hamon, J.-J. Joffraud, S. La Carbona, F. Leroi, S. Leroy, S. Lorre, S. Mace, M.-F. Pilet, H. Prevost, M. Rivollier, D. Roux, R. Talon, M. Zagorec and M.-C. Champomier-Verges 2015. Origin and ecological selection of core and food-specific bacterial communities associated with meat and seafood spoilage. ISME Journal(9): 1105-1118. Ranking du JCR: Q1.
  • Macé, S., N. Haddad, M. Zagorec and O. Tresse 2015. Influence of measurement and control of microaerobic gaseous atmospheres in methods for Campylobacter growth studies. Food Microbiology 52: 169-176. Ranking du JCR: Q1.
  • Jérôme, M., S. Macé, X. Dousset, B. Pot and J.-J. Joffraud 2016. Genetic diversity analysis of isolates belonging to the Photobacterium phosphoreum species group collected from salmon products using AFLP fingerprinting. International Journal of Food Microbiology 217: 101-109. Ranking du JCR: Q1.