Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal Oniris

Home page

PhD thesis of Nassima Illikoud (2014-2017)

Nassima Illikoud
Characterization of the genes involved in spoilage potential of Brochothrix thermosphacta (M. Zagorec, E. Jaffrès, M.F. Pilet)


The microbiological spoilage of food leads to considerable economic losses. It results from the development and metabolism of microorganisms producing undesirable odors, flavors, textures or colors. Brochothrix thermosphacta, is one of the main spoilage bacteria in meat and seafood products. It produces metabolites responsible for unpleasant odors, varying according to the strains, foods and bacterial communities that surround it. We evaluated its genetic and phenotypic diversity within a collection of strains from various ecological origins. Different methods discriminated the strains into distinct groups, revealing significant diversity. However, this is not related to the environment from which the strains were isolated. Four strains representative of this diversity were analyzed by comparative genomics. The genomic content is similar, the differences residing in the content of phages and / or plasmids and surface components which may contribute to their ecological adaptation. Point mutations may be responsible for the different capacities to produce spoilng molecules. A transcriptomic study has shown that genes differentially expressed during growth on a meat or seafood matrix encode important functions for growth and survival in these specific niches. Analysis of the volatiloma showed that B. thermosphacta produces different molecules responsible for unpleasant odors which vary depending on the matrix. Therefore, we have shown a matrix effect rather than a strain effect on the spoilage potential of B. thermosphacta.


  • Illikoud, N., C. Klopp, A. Roulet, O. Bouchez, N. Marsaud, E. Jaffres and M. Zagorec 2018. One complete and three draft genome sequences of four Brochothrix thermosphacta strains, CD 337, TAP 175, BSAS1 3 and EBP 3070. Standards in Genomic Science 13: 22. Ranking du JCR: Q4.
  • Illikoud, N., A. Rossero, R. Chauvet, P. Courcoux, M.-F. Pilet, T. Charrier, E. Jaffrès and M. Zagorec 2019. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the food spoilage bacterium Brochothrix thermosphacta. Food Microbiology 81: 22-31. Ranking du JCR: Q1.
  • Illikoud, N., R. Gohier, D. Werner, C. Barrachina, D. Roche, E. Jaffres and M. Zagorec 2019. Transcriptome and volatilome analysis during growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta in food: Role of food substrate and strain specificity for the expression of spoilage functions. Frontiers in Microbiology 10: 2527. Ranking du JCR: Q2.